Roses first cultivated in China

Chinese, Sumerians, Japanese or Persians: all wanted the rose. The rose culture of the Chinese even belonged for a long time to the most advanced in the world.
The garden rose has a long history behind it. It was cultivated in China as early as 2700BC, and by the Sumerians at almost exactly the same time. At all events, ancient tablets from the royal tombs of Ur in Chaldea report that the Sumerian King Sargon 1 (2684-2630BC) brought back vines, figs and rose trees to his country from a military campaign. Later on, roses were also grown in Japan, Kashmir the Assyrian Empire and Persia. It was so popular in Persia that the Persian word “gül” doesn't just mean “flower”, but also “rose”. Nowadays, it's a popular girl's name in the Middle East.

Later, the Ancient Greeks discovered the rose and promoted its cultivation. In 600 BC, the Greek poetess Sappho described it as “the grace of the earth” and “queen of all flowers”.
And by the way:
these early varieties had a major influence on European rose varieties.

All about the queen of flowers